How the Industrial Strategy can work for nature and the climate

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I’ve been the RSPB’s Conservation Director since May 2011. As I settle into the job, I’ll be blogging on all the big conservation topics and providing an inside view of our conservation projects. I hope you enjoy reading it and feel inspired to join in t

How the Industrial Strategy can work for nature and the climate

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It has been hard to ignore what has been going on in the USA this week where hard fought environmental commitments or policies appear to be eroded on a daily basis.  

But events in the UK have also been moving at pace.  

The remarkably succinct Article 50 Bill has now been published and we also have the promise of a White Paper on the UK Government's Brexit plan.  Clearly, we expect and need this White Paper to be more explicit about its negotiation aims and to consider how they will affect environmental ambitions, especially as these were not addressed in the Prime Minister's speech last week.

Yet, the Prime Minister also launched the hugely significant UK’s draft Industrial Strategy this week.  This took place at her first regional cabinet meeting in the heart of England’s industrial North. It happens that this is just a stone’s throw from the RSPB estuary reserves of Burton Mere Wetland and Marshside where some of our most important areas for wintering waders and wildfowl sit alongside the bustling metropolitan and industrial centres of Manchester and Liverpool. I was pleased, therefore, to see that an Industrial Strategy that aims to deliver a “stronger economy and a fairer society”, also mentions the need to consider how we use and improve our stock of “natural capital” in the UK. This natural capital includes those vital estuaries at our reserve sites as well as all our natural capital assets: our rivers, woodlands and peatlands, and their wildlife, for example and the services they provide.

New industry and infrastructure can deliver more for people when they do not degrade our wildlife or “natural capital”, particularly if there is the opportunity to enhance these assets so I would like to see this concept placed at the heart of the Industrial Strategy. One way to embed this is to adopt a spatial approach to planning where new infrastructure is sited. If impacts on nature are taken into account in spatial planning, this makes it possible to identify the areas where we can avoid or minimise harm to nature, an important step in positive planning for any new industrial development.

There is a lot of detail in the strategy, but I want to focus on three key areas that have direct implications for nature and for the UK’s ability to reduce climate change: energy, transport and flood defence.


In the Strategy, the UK Government signals that it believes good progress is being made on security of supply and on emissions reductions. However, as the Committee on Climate Change has pointed out, the UK is currently not on course to meet its future climate targets enshrined in the fourth and fifth carbon budgets. These budgets may need to be even more ambitious (in line with aspiration in the global Paris Treaty on climate change) for the UK to help to limit temperature rises to 1.5 degrees, instead of 2 degrees. There is much work still to be done and one way to deliver significant emissions reductions is to embed energy efficiency measures at the heart of the Industrial Strategy. I therefore welcome proposals in the strategy to review how best to support greater energy efficiency in the power and industrial sectors.

However, the Government seems to be leaving much of the heavy lifting on future decarbonisation of the energy sector to the forthcoming Emissions Reduction Plan. This plan will need to set out a clear pathway for the UK to meet its existing carbon budgets. The hard-to-crack sectors of heat and transport will need particular attention, and the Plan will also need to provide long-term clarity on the timing, and support available for renewables in the coming years. A spatial analysis of where renewable energy can be deployed in harmony with nature would be an important element of this Plan, helping to minimise planning conflicts and ensuring the least ecologically sensitive areas are maximised. 

Solar panels being installed at Old Hall Marshes RSPB reserve (Andy Hay 


The strategy places emphasis on large-scale projects that can cut journey times such as HS2, a new Heathrow runway and new road capacity. The RSPB is opposed to a new runway at Heathrow as it has not been demonstrated that this can be built without placing unrealistic decarbonisation objectives on other sectors of the economy in meeting our climate goals. Furthermore, any new road infrastructure will need to be carefully designed in order to minimise the impact on the natural environment and may also lead to emissions increases. I am pleased, though, to see the ambition of Government to support the rapid roll out of electric vehicles alongside a much-needed assessment of the impact of this on our electricity network. This is an exciting opportunity for the UK can demonstrate leadership, while avoiding the sustainability risks associated with many biofuels. However, it is disappointing that there is no strategy to reduce transport demand, which is a no-regrets way of reducing pressure on existing infrastructure and avoiding environmental impacts.

Flood defence

The strategy recognises that both flood and drought pose an increasing risk to our long-term economic growth. It references the UK Government’s National Flood Resilience Review call for key infrastructure providers to do more to ensure their assets are flood resilient. The Review could have gone further because it failed to explore opportunities to combine the significant investment companies are making in improving their own assets’ resilience with the Government’s commitment to flood risk management in order to determine whether working together could deliver better outcomes for communities and the environment.

There is no greater opportunity to obtain multiple benefits from investment than in tackling flood risk. Making space for water through recognising the value of green and blue infrastructure provides protection for businesses at the same time as a better place for people to live and work. It is early days but the National Infrastructure Commission recognises these opportunities and we look forward to its first review.

My conclusion is that In a period of great upheaval, this is a great opportunity for the UK to show the rest of the world how to renew infrastructure while driving a low carbon economy and investing in our natural environment.  This Industrial Strategy has the potential to do just this: to deliver for the economy, nature and the climate but there is work to do if this potential is to be realised. I am pleased to see the Government accept its leadership role in industry, rather than simply leaving the market to act alone. Active intervention – whether through regulation, financial incentives or spatial planning – can play a positive role in delivering the right development in the right place, in harmony with nature.

The RSPB will actively seek to influence this draft strategy to ensure it delivers just that.

  • A very interesting blog, Martin.

    There is one over-riding message that comes through the proposals you've discussed: integration. The huge opportunities were we to link planning, landuse, energy, housing and transport policies. One of the developing themes of the current Government is how, in its rush to dogmatically decrease the role and presence of Government, gaps are opening up all over the place - most notably in the NHS, where front end  (keeping people out of A&E) and back end (cuts to local Government social care funding) are piling up pressure on hospitals.

    Elsewhere, cutting advisory services is holding back bringing neglected woodland into management, to the detriment of carbon saving through the successful Renewable Heat incentive (you rightly note heat as a key issue - making up nearly half our energy use)  and biodiversity like Nightingale and Dormouse dependant on traditional woodland management.